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金融动态 Financial Dynamic

完善金融支(zhi)撑体系(xi) 保障中(zhong)小企业创(chuang)新发(fa)展

2020-04-30

    当前(qian),我国(guo)(guo)经(jing)(jing)济已由高(gao)速增(zeng)(zeng)长(zhang)阶段转(zhuan)向(xiang)高(gao)质量发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)阶段。中(zhong)(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)(ye)作为国(guo)(guo)民经(jing)(jing)济发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)重要(yao)(yao)生力(li)军,已成为我国(guo)(guo)经(jing)(jing)济发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)不(bu)(bu)可或缺的(de)(de)部(bu)分,在稳定增(zeng)(zeng)长(zhang)、促进(jin)创新(xin)、增(zeng)(zeng)加就业(ye)(ye)、改(gai)(gai)善(shan)民生等(deng)方面发(fa)(fa)挥着不(bu)(bu)可替代的(de)(de)作用(yong),在推(tui)动高(gao)质量发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)具(ju)有(you)重要(yao)(yao)地位(wei)。近年来(lai),中(zhong)(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)(ye)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)面临融(rong)(rong)资(zi)难、融(rong)(rong)资(zi)贵等(deng)一系(xi)列问题(ti),其中(zhong)(zhong)既有(you)外部(bu)全(quan)球经(jing)(jing)济不(bu)(bu)确定性(xing)增(zeng)(zeng)大和国(guo)(guo)内经(jing)(jing)济发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)结构调整、新(xin)旧动能转(zhuan)换等(deng)宏(hong)观层(ceng)面的(de)(de)原因,也有(you)金(jin)融(rong)(rong)政策落(luo)实(shi)不(bu)(bu)到位(wei)、金(jin)融(rong)(rong)服(fu)务不(bu)(bu)能精准对应中(zhong)(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)(ye)实(shi)际情况等(deng)微观层(ceng)面的(de)(de)原因。要(yao)(yao)想更好满(man)足中(zhong)(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)(ye)融(rong)(rong)资(zi)需求,进(jin)一步(bu)推(tui)动中(zhong)(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)(ye)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),就要(yao)(yao)从解(jie)决金(jin)融(rong)(rong)服(fu)务理(li)念、执行机制、服(fu)务路径、服(fu)务产(chan)品等(deng)问题(ti)入(ru)手,通过调整供给结构、做(zuo)好增(zeng)(zeng)量改(gai)(gai)革、优化资(zi)源配置、完善(shan)担保体系(xi)、因地因情制宜、完善(shan)治(zhi)理(li)体系(xi),建立完善(shan)全(quan)方位(wei)、多层(ceng)次的(de)(de)金(jin)融(rong)(rong)支撑(cheng)体系(xi),从而(er)有(you)效保障中(zhong)(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)(ye)创新(xin)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)。

    第(di)一(yi),调整供(gong)给结构(gou),推(tui)动中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)和区(qu)域金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)发(fa)(fa)展。分(fen)析起来,供(gong)给结构(gou)不完善是(shi)金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)服务(wu)实体(ti)(ti)经(jing)(jing)济不到(dao)位的一(yi)个重(zhong)要(yao)(yao)原因(yin)。受诸多原因(yin)影响,一(yi)些国有大型金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)等难以(yi)满足(zu)创新企(qi)业(ye)特(te)别是(shi)中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)资(zi)需(xu)求,这(zhei)一(yi)结构(gou)性(xing)(xing)矛盾亟待(dai)破题。从供(gong)给侧(ce)看,中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)与大型金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)相比(bi),更(geng)能以(yi)市场需(xu)求为导向开发(fa)(fa)差异化(hua)(hua)、定(ding)制(zhi)化(hua)(hua)产(chan)品(pin),能够直接、有效形(xing)成支(zhi)持中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)发(fa)(fa)展的金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)产(chan)品(pin)和服务(wu)体(ti)(ti)系。因(yin)此,要(yao)(yao)持续推(tui)动普惠金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)发(fa)(fa)展,支(zhi)持区(qu)域性(xing)(xing)银行等中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)发(fa)(fa)展,促进民营银行持续健康发(fa)(fa)展,为实体(ti)(ti)经(jing)(jing)济特(te)别是(shi)中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)微(wei)企(qi)业(ye)提供(gong)更(geng)有针对性(xing)(xing)、更(geng)加便(bian)利的金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)服务(wu)。要(yao)(yao)看到(dao),城商行、农信(xin)社(she)、农商行等金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)深耕地方,对中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)需(xu)求较为熟悉,对其风险(xian)定(ding)价和判断能力也(ye)较高,可大力推(tui)动这(zhei)些金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)机(ji)(ji)构(gou)立足(zu)自(zi)身服务(wu)区(qu)域,进一(yi)步(bu)下沉服务(wu)重(zhong)心,在(zai)有效促进小(xiao)(xiao)微(wei)金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)服务(wu)精准化(hua)(hua)、科学化(hua)(hua)上下功夫,从而更(geng)好(hao)制(zhi)定(ding)合适的金(jin)(jin)(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)产(chan)品(pin),更(geng)好(hao)服务(wu)于(yu)中(zhong)小(xiao)(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)发(fa)(fa)展。

    第二,做好增(zeng)量改(gai)革,加快推出(chu)有(you)(you)利于中(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)创新(xin)的(de)金融产(chan)品(pin)。要(yao)(yao)(yao)充分利用(yong)大数据、区块链等技(ji)术手段,推动金融产(chan)品(pin)和服(fu)务(wu)创新(xin)应用(yong),解决信息不(bu)对称问题,增(zeng)加服(fu)务(wu)供给效率。在这一过程中(zhong),既(ji)要(yao)(yao)(yao)积极建(jian)立支(zhi)持中(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)创新(xin)发展(zhan)的(de)信贷管理和贷款评(ping)审制度(du),推进差(cha)别化(hua)信贷准入和风险控(kong)制,还(hai)要(yao)(yao)(yao)发展(zhan)中(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)投(tou)融资(zi)(zi)服(fu)务(wu)中(zhong)心,为技(ji)术所有(you)(you)者、各类投(tou)融资(zi)(zi)机(ji)(ji)构交流合作提供信息服(fu)务(wu),帮助有(you)(you)融资(zi)(zi)需(xu)求(qiu)的(de)中(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)进行融资(zi)(zi)模(mo)式设计、渠道(dao)筛(shai)选(xuan);既(ji)要(yao)(yao)(yao)构建(jian)知(zhi)识产(chan)权评(ping)估、金融服(fu)务(wu)、交易处置等一体化(hua)知(zhi)识产(chan)权投(tou)融资(zi)(zi)服(fu)务(wu)体系,还(hai)要(yao)(yao)(yao)支(zhi)持保(bao)(bao)险机(ji)(ji)构针(zhen)对科创型(xing)企(qi)业(ye)开发产(chan)品(pin)研发责任(ren)保(bao)(bao)险、关键研发设备保(bao)(bao)险等产(chan)品(pin),从而精准满(man)足(zu)中(zhong)小企(qi)业(ye)发展(zhan)的(de)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)。

    第三,优化(hua)(hua)资(zi)(zi)源配置,发挥资(zi)(zi)本市场(chang)(chang)支持(chi)中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)创新发展的(de)(de)作(zuo)用(yong)。资(zi)(zi)本市场(chang)(chang)是(shi)成熟经济(ji)金融(rong)体(ti)系的(de)(de)中(zhong)枢,是(shi)服务(wu)实体(ti)经济(ji)、增加(jia)财富管理(li)渠(qu)道(dao)和提升人民(min)获得感的(de)(de)重要(yao)抓手。要(yao)提高支持(chi)中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)创新发展的(de)(de)有效性,建(jian)设一个运营(ying)规范、高效、适用(yong)的(de)(de)多层次资(zi)(zi)本市场(chang)(chang)体(ti)系是(shi)题(ti)中(zhong)应有之(zhi)义。可(ke)考虑放(fang)宽(kuan)市场(chang)(chang)准入限制,优化(hua)(hua)融(rong)资(zi)(zi)结构和信(xin)贷结构,激发市场(chang)(chang)活力,满足经济(ji)发展中(zhong)的(de)(de)多元化(hua)(hua)融(rong)资(zi)(zi)需求(qiu)(qiu)。要(yao)落实好(hao)各层次市场(chang)(chang)差异(yi)化(hua)(hua)定位,建(jian)立健全转板(ban)机制,使(shi)不(bu)同(tong)市场(chang)(chang)不(bu)同(tong)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)在(zai)股权(quan)融(rong)资(zi)(zi)上更好(hao)匹配。要(yao)完善中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)股权(quan)市场(chang)(chang),引导私募基金、风险投资(zi)(zi)基金健康发展。此外,还要(yao)深(shen)(shen)刻理(li)解中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)发展客(ke)观规律,深(shen)(shen)入了解不(bu)同(tong)产(chan)业(ye)(ye)、不(bu)同(tong)区域、不(bu)同(tong)生命周期的(de)(de)中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)融(rong)资(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)诉求(qiu)(qiu)和困难(nan)点,对处于不(bu)同(tong)发展阶段的(de)(de)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)提供差异(yi)化(hua)(hua)服务(wu)。

    第四,完善(shan)担保(bao)体系,拓(tuo)宽(kuan)中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)融(rong)资(zi)渠道、提(ti)(ti)升(sheng)融(rong)资(zi)能(neng)力。现(xian)阶段,银行贷(dai)款(kuan)仍然是(shi)(shi)中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)获得金融(rong)支持(chi)的(de)主要渠道。针(zhen)对中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)特别是(shi)(shi)创(chuang)新(xin)型(xing)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)特点(dian)完善(shan)融(rong)资(zi)担保(bao)体系是(shi)(shi)当务之急。应(ying)大力度增加供给,建立(li)金融(rong)机(ji)构(gou)、担保(bao)机(ji)构(gou)和再担保(bao)机(ji)构(gou)风(feng)险分(fen)担机(ji)制。此外,可(ke)考虑顺应(ying)中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)发展新(xin)需求,针(zhen)对中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)抵(di)押物不足问题,立(li)足评估(gu)更(geng)(geng)加透明、贷(dai)款(kuan)更(geng)(geng)加简(jian)化、放款(kuan)更(geng)(geng)加快捷、还款(kuan)更(geng)(geng)加灵活的(de)要求,适度提(ti)(ti)高风(feng)险容忍度,创(chuang)新(xin)质押信贷(dai)模式,使中(zhong)小(xiao)企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)融(rong)资(zi)更(geng)(geng)简(jian)洁、更(geng)(geng)易操作,更(geng)(geng)具商业(ye)(ye)可(ke)持(chi)续(xu)性。

    第(di)五,因地(di)因情制宜,结合资(zi)源禀赋深化(hua)区(qu)域金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)改(gai)(gai)革(ge)。客观上,要素(su)禀赋深刻(ke)影响(xiang)着区(qu)域产业(ye)(ye)(ye)结构(gou)(gou)、金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)机构(gou)(gou)特(te)点(dian)。不(bu)同禀赋且发(fa)展程(cheng)度各异的(de)(de)(de)地(di)区(qu),对(dui)(dui)金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)改(gai)(gai)革(ge)也存在(zai)(zai)不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)现实需求(qiu)。因此,在(zai)(zai)宏观政策引导中,需要因地(di)制宜,根据(ju)区(qu)域经(jing)济(ji)特(te)点(dian)以(yi)(yi)及金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)运(yun)行规律,开展区(qu)域金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)改(gai)(gai)革(ge)或进行专项改(gai)(gai)革(ge)试点(dian)示范,有(you)效规避一刀切(qie)改(gai)(gai)革(ge)可能带来的(de)(de)(de)片(pian)面性(xing),形(xing)成政策合力。具(ju)体说,就是(shi)要坚持将服务实体经(jing)济(ji)发(fa)展、支持中小企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)创(chuang)新(xin)作为(wei)出发(fa)点(dian),以(yi)(yi)金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)改(gai)(gai)革(ge)为(wei)牵引,以(yi)(yi)财(cai)税、产业(ye)(ye)(ye)、土地(di)、环(huan)保等(deng)一系列政策为(wei)支撑,形(xing)成综合配套改(gai)(gai)革(ge)制度体系,切(qie)实解决企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)关心的(de)(de)(de)现实问题。同时(shi),还(hai)要有(you)所侧(ce)重(zhong)、差别(bie)定位,探索出多(duo)层次推进金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)创(chuang)新(xin)的(de)(de)(de)特(te)色(se)路径。比如(ru),在(zai)(zai)较发(fa)达地(di)区(qu)可考虑(lv)着力释放(fang)经(jing)济(ji)发(fa)展新(xin)动能,探索金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)发(fa)展如(ru)何支持企(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)家创(chuang)新(xin);在(zai)(zai)相对(dui)(dui)欠发(fa)达地(di)区(qu),则侧(ce)重(zhong)于强化(hua)金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)基础性(xing)功(gong)能,充(chong)分发(fa)挥金(jin)融(rong)(rong)(rong)对(dui)(dui)经(jing)济(ji)高质量发(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)输(shu)血、造血功(gong)能。

    第六,完(wan)善治理体(ti)系(xi),加强对创(chuang)(chuang)新金(jin)融服(fu)务(wu)和(he)产品的(de)监管(guan)。在加大金(jin)融创(chuang)(chuang)新力(li)度(du)支持中小(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)发(fa)展的(de)同(tong)(tong)时,还要注重应对创(chuang)(chuang)新金(jin)融服(fu)务(wu)和(he)产品带来的(de)风险挑战,不断完(wan)善金(jin)融治理体(ti)系(xi)。一方面,要建立统一的(de)统计(ji)监测制度(du)和(he)监管(guan)标准规则,严防影(ying)子银行风险;另一方面,要加强对同(tong)(tong)业(ye)业(ye)务(wu)、理财业(ye)务(wu)等的(de)有效(xiao)管(guan)理,缩短企(qi)业(ye)融资链条,防止商业(ye)银行负债端成本向企(qi)业(ye)不合理转嫁。同(tong)(tong)时,防范金(jin)融风险、确保金(jin)融安全,需(xu)要找准规律,提高管(guan)理效(xiao)能,切实把金(jin)融服(fu)务(wu)实体(ti)经济的(de)作(zuo)用发(fa)挥好,逐步完(wan)善金(jin)融体(ti)系(xi),使其成为推(tui)动中小(xiao)企(qi)业(ye)创(chuang)(chuang)新发(fa)展的(de)有效(xiao)保障。

    来源:中国经(jing)济网(wang)—《经(jing)济日(ri)报》